//Corruption in India

Corruption in India

NEW DELHI: The Xerox revelations on graft in India are just part of what is a well-known phenomenon. The country ranks 71 on a global index of corruption in 91 countries compiled by international NGO Transparency International.
Berlin-based Transparency, which describes itself as a "not-for-profit non-governmental organisation committed to countering corruption in international business transactions and curb corruption at the national level", publishes a Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) every year.
The CPI is based on the perceptions of businessmen, risk analysts and the general public on the degree of corruption among public officials and politicians. Each country is assigned a CPI score between 10 (highly clean) and 0 (highly corrupt).
 

Country
Rank
Country
2001
CPI
Score
1
Finland
9.9
2
Denmark
9.5
3
New Zealand
9.4
4
Iceland
9.2
Singapore
9.2
6
Sweden
9.0
7
Canada
8.9
8
Netherlands
8.8
9
Luxembourg
8.7
10
Norway
8.6
11
Australia
8.5
12
Switzerland
8.4
13
United Kingdom
8.3
14
Hong Kong
7.9
15
Austria
7.8
16
Israel
7.6
USA
7.6
18
Chile
7.5
Ireland
7.5
20
Germany
7.4
21
Japan
7.1
22
Spain
7.0
23
France
6.7
24
Belgium
6.6
25
Portugal
6.3
26
Botswana
6.0
27
Taiwan
5.9
28
Estonia
5.6
29
Italy
5.5
30
Namibia
5.4
31
Hungary
5.3
Trinidad & Tobago
5.3
Tunisia
5.3
34
Slovenia
5.2
35
Uruguay
5.1
36
Malaysia
5.0
37
Jordan
4.9
38
Lithuania
4.8
South Africa
4.8
40
Costa Rica
4.5
Mauritius
4.5
42
Greece
4.2
South Korea
4.2
44
Peru
4.1
Poland
4.1
46
Brazil
4.0
47
Bulgaria
3.9
Croatia
3.9
Czech Republic
3.9
50
Colombia
3.8
51
Mexico
3.7
Panama
3.7
Slovak Republic
3.7
54
Egypt
3.6
El Salvador
3.6
Turkey
3.6
57
Argentina
3.5
China
3.5
59
Ghana
3.4
Latvia
3.4
61
Malawi
3.2
Thailand
3.2
63

Dominican Rep
3.1
Moldova
3.1
65
Guatemala
2.9
Philippines
2.9
Senegal
2.9
Zimbabwe
2.9
69
Romania
2.8
Venezuela
2.8
71
Honduras
2.7
India
2.7
Kazakhstan
2.7
Uzbekistan
2.7
75
Vietnam
2.6
Zambia
2.6
77
Cote d´Ivoire
2.4
Nicaragua
2.4
79
Ecuador
2.3
Pakistan
2.3
Russia
2.3
82
Tanzania
2.2
83
Ukraine
2.1
84
Azerbaijan
2.0
Bolivia
2.0
Cameroon
2.0
Kenya
2.0
88
Indonesia
1.9
Uganda
1.9
90
Nigeria
1.0
91
Bangladesh
0.4
 
While the index for the year 2002 is due to be out in August 2002, the index for 2001 has India sharing the 71st place with Honduras, Kazakhsthan and Uzbekistan, with 2.7 points each. India ranked 69 in 2000.
Finland, at No. 1, is perceived in the 2001 index to be the most corruption-free country with a CPI score of 9.9. Denmark with 9.5 and New Zealand (9.4) follow closely.
Bangladesh has the ignominous honour of being the most corrupt at 91st place with a 0.4 CPI score. Pakistan is 79th with 2.3, sharing its place with Russia and Ecuador.
UK (8.3) at No. 13 is less corrupt than US (7.6) which is ranked 16 along with Israel.
Another interesting study by Transparency is the International Bribe Payers’ Index (BPI). This is a "comprehensive study on bribe-paying in international trade and a look at key factors influencing corruption. It covers unfair business practices, assesses the readiness of the private sector for the new ban on bribing foreign public officials and includes the industrial sector ranking."
The BPI for 2002, published in May, is based on surveys conducted in 15 emerging markets by Gallup International Association. The BPI 2002 was conducted in India, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Hungary, Indonesia, Mexico, Morocco, Nigeria, the Philippines, Poland, Russia, South Africa, South Korea and Thailand, which Transparency describes as among the largest such emerging market countries involved in trade and investment with multinational firms.
Between December 2001 and March 2002, Transparency asked senior executives of leading multinationals, law and accountancy firms, industry chambers, banks in these 15 countries to rate companies from 21 leading exporting countries in terms of propensity to pay bribes. Domestic companies were also a part of the survey.
On this index, companies from Australia (score of 8.5) are seen as the cleanest followed by those from Sweden and Switzerland (8.4). Russian companies are the biggest bribe-payers with a score of 3.2. China (3.5) is a little better ranked 20.
Companies from USA (5.3), where Xerox is based, are somewhere in the middle at the 13th place along with Japan.
A score of 10 indicates zero perceived propensity of companies from that country to pay bribes. According to Transparency, "in the 2002 survey, all the data indicated that domestically owned companies in the 15 countries surveyed had a very high propensity to pay bribes – higher than that of foreign firms." Did we hear charity begins at home?